Friday, July 17, 2020
Cloud Audit And Compliance Essay Example Cloud Audit And Compliance â" Essay Example > The paper â Cloud Audit And Complianceâ is an excellent example of an essay on information technology. Cloud audit is the science of computing that involves storing information online, by means of the internet. This technological advancement has numerous benefits such as the creation of worldwide data accessory, where one can get the data from any part of the world through the internet. The service providers of the cloud audit and computing have information backup, which ensures that no information can be lost whatsoever. The Cloud Service Provider or (CSP) keep prices low by using sites in countries with lower cost. However, this science of computing has raised different arguments, creating varied perspective among the Cloud service providers and their customers. As argued out by ALI (2012), the customers doubt the Privacy Compliance of the CSP. Various nations have varying rights regarding the data that you hold about their citizen. The customers are not assured of the priva cy of their data. Typically, an individual can ask to see this data or have this data destroyed whereas this data must be confidential and not have been shared with other parties without the express permission of the individual. However, Public Cloud-based data has additional challenges. This aspect has been caused by the varying regulations between countries. Customers anticipate that with stricter privacy controls forced by law in their nations, the future of the Cloud Computing will ensure the privacy of their information. On the same issue, geographical compliance is a challenge to the CSP. The science of cloud computing is advancing swiftly, while the regulations on this service remain to differ regionally. The compliance of the CSP on these regulations is far much opposite since they seem unaware or uninterested in current regulations. These regulations lie of the basis of where the data is stored, where the data is processed or where the individual resides that the data con cerns. However, the compliance issues with cloud computing seem to be coming to an ultimate solution as, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry is implementing guidelines on the protection of privacy and trans-border flows of personal data to ensure that the privacy of the customers is achieved (Bachlechner, Thalmann Maier 2014).
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2972 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? The Indian banking industry is considered as a blooming and the secure in the world. The paper deals with the banking sector reforms and it has been discussed that how far Indian banks are able to manage their risks by introduction of banking sector reforms.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Further the paper has discussed an evaluation of Basel Norms and their impact on economic growth of the country since from the globalization. It will also through light on Emergence of BASEl-3 and its impact on banking in India.ÃâÃ The role of banks in India has changed a lot since economic reforms of 1991. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Impact On Indian Banking Finance Essay" essay for you Create order These changes came due to LPG, i.e. liberalization, privatization and globalization policy being followed by GOI. Since then most traditional and outdated concepts, practices, procedures and methods of banking have changed significantly.ÃâÃ Competition among financial intermediaries gradually helped the interest rates to decline. Deregulation added to it. The real interest rate was maintained. The borrowers did not pay high price while depositors had incentives to save. This type of condition sometimes causes bank failure, if not properly managed. So banks need to manage their risk by proper provisioning. The introduction of Basel- Norms is one of the initiatives for that. As per RBI estimates, about a third of the total flow in the financial sector passes through the banks. Obviously, banks are an important part of the financial sector. Reforms in the financial and the banking sectors would enable better financial products. This will allow financial viability and help the econo my. Key Words: Banking Sector, Reforms, Economy, Inflation, Growth Introduction- Indian banking sector has undergone major changes and reforms during economic reforms. Though it was a part of overall economic reforms, it has changed the very functioning of Indian banks. This reform has not only influenced the productivity and efficiency of many of the Indian Banks, but has left everlasting footprints on the working of the banking sector in India. The efficient, dynamic and effective banking sector plays a decisive role in accelerating the rate of economic growth in any economy. The Government of India introduced economic and financial sector reforms in 1991 and banking sector reforms were part and parcel of financial sector reforms. These were initiated in 1991 to make Indian banking sector more efficient, strong and dynamic. Almost 80% of the business are still controlled by Public Sector Banks (PSBs). PSBs are still dominating the commercial banking system. Shares of the leading PSBs are already listed on the stock exchanges. The RBI has given lic ences to new private sector banks as part of the liberalisation process. The RBI has also been granting licences to industrial houses. Many banks are successfully running in the retail and consumer segments but are yet to deliver services to industrial finance, retail trade, small business and agricultural finance. The PSBs will play an important role in the industry due to its number of branches and foreign banks facing the constrait of limited number of branches. Hence, in order to achieve an efficient banking system, the onus is on the Government to encourage the PSBs to be run on professional lines. This chapter focuses on Indias banking sector, which has been attracting increasing attention since 1991 when a financial reform programme was launched. It assesses whether the reform programme has been successful so far in restructuring public-sector banks. Role of BASEL-The objective of the Basel Committees reform package is to improve the banking sectors ability to absorb shocks arising from financial and economic stress, whatever the source, thus reducing the risk of spillover from the financial sector to the real economy. A strong and resilient banking system is the foundation for sustainable economic growth, as banks are at the centre of the credit intermediation process between savers and investors. Moreover, banks provide critical services to consumers, small and medium-sized enterprises, large corporate firms and governments who rely on them to conduct their daily business, both at a domestic and international level. To address the market failures revealed by the crisis, the BASEL Committee is introducing a number of fundamental reforms to the international regulatory framework. The reforms strengthen bank-level, or micro prudential, regulation, which will help raise the resilience of individual banking institutions to periods o f stress. The reforms also have a macro prudential focus, addressing system wide risks that can build up across the banking sector as well as the procyclical amplification of these risks over time. Clearly these two micro and macroprudential approaches to supervision are interrelated, as greater resilience at the individual bank level reduces the risk of system wide shocks. About BASEL Norms The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision provides a forum for regular cooperation on banking supervisory matters. Its objective is to enhance understanding of key supervisory issues and improve the quality of banking supervision worldwide. It seeks to do so by exchanging information on national supervisory issues, approaches and techniques, with a view to promoting common understanding. The Committees Secretariat is located at the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in Basel, Switzerland. The committee drafted a first document to set up an international minimum amount of capital that banks should hold. This minimum is a percentage of the total capital of a bank, which is also called the minimum risk-based capital adequacy. In 1988, the Basel I Capital Accord (agreement) was created. In 1988, BCBS(Basel committee for Banking Supervision) introduced capital measurement system called Basel capital accord, also called as Basel 1. Basel I define capital based on two tiers: Tier 1 (Core Capital): Tier 1 capital includes stock issues (or share holders equity) and declared reserves, such as loan loss reserves set aside to cushion future losses or for smoothing out income variations. It focused almost entirely on credit risk. Tier 2 (Supplementary Capital): Tier 2 capital includes all other capital such as gains on investment assets, long-term debt with maturity greater than five years and hidden reserves (i.e. excess allowance for losses on loans and leases). However, short-term unsecured debts (or debts without guarantees), are not included in the definition of capital. BASEL-1, defined capital and structure of risk weights for banks. The minimum capital requirement was fixed at 8% of risk weighted assets (RWA). RWA means assets with different risk profiles. A portfolio approach was taken to the measure of risk, with assets classified into four buckets (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%) according to the debtor category For example, an asset backed by collateral would carry lesser risks as compared to personal loans, which have no collateral. India adopted Basel 1 guidelines in 1999. Although BASEL-1was the first international instrument assessing the importance of risk in relation to capital was a milestone in the finance and banking history, even then it suffers many limitations. As fixation of 8% capital ratio to protect banks from credit risk similarly no recognition was given to risk associated with maturity of credit, risk associated with different currencies and macroeconomics risk. Due to these limitations Basel Committee decided to propose a more risk-sensitive framework in June 1999 which is known as BASEl-11 accord. BASEL-II- The objective of BASEl-11 was to promote safety and soundness in the financial system; Enhance competitive equality; Constitute a more comprehensive approach to addressing risks; and to develop approaches to capital adequacy that are appropriately sensitive to the degree of risk involved in a banks positions and activities. The Basel II capital accord is a three-pillared framework. Minimum Capital Requirement: Based on certain calculations minimum capital requirement has to be maintained. The Supervisory Review Process: The Central Bank (RBI) of the country has to ensure that each bank has an adequate capital to adopt better management techniques. Market Discipline: There should be a mandatory disclosure on risk management practices with transparency. Basel II provides three approaches of increasing sophistication to the calculation of credit risk capital; the Standardised Approach (SA), the Foundation Internal Ratings Based Approach and the Advanced Internal Ratings Based Approach (AIRB). Basel II also introduced capital requirements for operational risk (OR) for the first time. Implementation in India- The process of implementing Basel II norms in India was planned to being carried out in phases. Phase I was for foreign banks operating in India and Indian banks having operational presence outside India with effect from March 31,2008. In phase II, all other scheduled commercial banks (except Local Area Banks and RRBs) were adhere to Basel II guidelines by March 31, 2009. With the deadline of March 31, 2009 for full implementation of Basel II norms fast approaching, banks are looking to maintain a cushion in their respective capital reserves. The minimum capital to risk-weighted asset ratio (CRAR) in India was placed at 9%, one percentage point above the Basel II requirement. All the banks have their Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio (CRAR) above the stipulated requirement of Basel guidelines (8%) and RBI guidelines (9%). As per Basel II norms, Indian banks should maintain tier I capital of at least 6%. The hurdles which were faced by India for implementation of BASEL-II were that first of all there is a need for improved risk management and measurement. It aims to give impetus to the use of internal rating system by the international banks. Second requirement is to arrange risk capital requirement by the banks. Also, Basel II gives some scope to extend the rating of issues to issuers, this would only be an approximation and it would be necessary for the system to move to ratings of issuers. Encouraging ratings of issuers would be a challenge. BASEL-III- Basel III released in December, 2010 is the third in the series of Basel Accords. Basel III is a comprehensive set of reform measures, developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, to strengthen the regulation, supervision and risk management of the banking sector. Its aim is to improve the banking sectors ability to absorb shocks arising from financial and economic stress, improve risk management and governance, strengthen banks transparency and disclosures. The Basel III which is to be implemented by banks in India as per the guidelines issued by RBI from time to time, will be challenging task not only for the banks but also for GOI. It is estimated that Indian banks will be required to rais Rs 6,00,000 crores in external capital in next nine years or so i.e. by 2020 Basel III is a comprehensive set of reform measures, developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, to strengthen the regulation, supervision and risk management of the banking sector. These measures aim to improve the banking sectors ability to absorb shocks arising from financial and economic stress, whatever the source improve risk management and governance strengthen banks transparency and disclosures. Features of BASL-3- The features of BASEL-III, which make it more stringent than BASEL-I and II are as follows. Basel III aim is to introduction of much stricter definition of capital. Better quality capital means the higher loss-absorbing capacity. This in turn will mean that banks will be stronger, allowing them to better withstand periods of stress. By introduction of Basel III banks will be required to hold a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%. The aim of asking to build conservation buffer is to ensure that banks maintain a cushion of capital that can be used to absorb losses during periods of financial and economic stress. The countercyclical buffer has been introduced with the objective to increase capital requirements in good times and decrease the same in bad times. The buffer will slow banking activity when it overheats and will encourage lending when times are tough i.e. in bad times. The buffer will range from 0% to 2.5%, consisting of common equity or other fully loss-absorbing capital. The minimum requirement for common equity, the highest form of loss-absorbing capital, has been raised under Basel III from 2% to 4.5% of total risk-weighted assets. The overall Tier 1 capital requirement, consisting of not only common equity but also other qualifying financial instruments, will also increase from the current minimum of 4% to 6%. Although the minimum total capital requirement will remain at the current 8% level, yet the required total capital will increase to 10.5% when combined with the conservation buffer. Under Basel III, a framework for liquidity risk management will be created. A new Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) are to be introduced in 2015 and 2018, respectively. Comparison of Basel-II and Basel-III Requirements Under Basel II Under Basel III Minimum Ratio of Total Capital To RWAs 8% 10.50% Minimum Ratio of Common Equity to RWAs 2% 4.50% to 7.00% Tier I capital to RWAs 4% 6.00% Core Tier I capital to RWAs 2% 5.00% Capital Conservation Buffers to RWAs None 2.50% Leverage Ratio None 3.00% Countercyclical Buffer None 0% to 2.50% Minimum Liquidity Coverage Ratio None TBD1 (2015) Minimum Net Stable Funding Ratio None TBD1 (2018) Systemically important Financial Institutions Charge None TBD1 (2011) ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ (TBD-To be Determined)1 Literature Review- Several previous studies describe the reform effort and the inefficiency of the banks. IMF (2004 and 2005) provides an overview of the most recent reforms and Barnett (2004) reviews the structure and recent developments in the banking sector. For a review of previous banking system reforms, since the mid-1990s, see Karacadag (2003). Strengthening financial systems has been one of the central issues facing emerging markets and developing economies. This is because sound financial systems serve as an important channel for achieving economic growth through the mobilization of financial savings, putting them to productive use and transforming various risks (Beck, Levin and Loayza 1999; King and Levin 1993; Rajan and Zingales 1998; Demirg-Kunt, Asli and Maksimovic 1998; Jayaratne and Strahan 1996). Many countries including India adopted a series of financial sector liberalization measures in the late 1980s and early 1990s that included interest rate liberalization, entr y deregulations, reduction of reserve requirements and removal of credit allocation. It has been argued by a number of economists that a well-developed financial system enables smooth flow of savings and investments and hence, supports economic growth (see King and Levine, 1993, Goldsmith, 1969). A healthy financial system can help achieve efficient allocation of resources across time and space by reducing inefficiencies arising out of market frictions and other socio-economic factors. Analysis of BASEL-III in Indian Context- Presently, a banks capital comprises Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital with a restriction that Tier 2 capital cannot be more than 100% of Tier 1 capital. Within Tier 1 capital, innovative instruments are limited to 15% of Tier 1 capital. Further, Perpetual Non-Cumulative Preference Shares along with Innovative Tier 1 instruments should not exceed 40% of total Tier 1 capital at any point of time. Within Tier 2 capital, subordinated debt is limited to a maximum of 50% of Tier 1 capital. However, under Basel III, with a view to improving the quality of capital, the Tier 1 capital will predominantly consist of Common Equity. At present, the regulatory adjustments (i.e. deductions and prudential filters) to capital vary across jurisdictions. A revised version of this document was issued in June 2011, generally applied to total Tier 1 capital or to a combination of Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. They are not generally applied to the Common Equity component of T ier 1 capital. With a view to improving the quality of Common Equity and also consistency of regulatory adjustments across jurisdictions, most of the adjustments under Basel III will be made from Common Equity The qualifying criteria for instruments to be included in Additional Tier 1 capital outside the Common Equity element as well as Tier 2 capital will be strengthened. This requirement will improve the market discipline under Pillar 3 of the Basel II framework The minimum Common Equity, Tier 1 and Total Capital requirements will be phased-in between January 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015, as indicated below. As a percentage of risk weighted assets.(RWA) January 1,2013 January 1,2014 January 1,2015 Minimum Common equity Tier-1 Capital 3.5% 4% 4.5% Minimum Tier-1 Capital 4.5% 5.5% 6% Minimum total Tier-1 Capital 8% 8% 8% Implementation of Basel III is expected to result in a decline in Indian banks Roe [return on equity] in the short term, Governor Subbarao said, speaking at a banking conference in Mumbai, while stressing that the reforms would benefit Indias overall financial system in the longer term. The global Basel III requirements, which require all banks to hold top quality capital equal to 7 per cent of their assets, adjusted for risk, are aimed at improving financial stability and avoiding a repeat of the crisis of 2008. But the sharply higher capital requirements have drawn warnings from analysts and financiers about their impact on banking lending rates and wider economic growth across the developing world. Conclusion- By implementation of the Basel III norms, the capital of many banks will reduce by around 60% because of the phased removal of certain components of capital from Tier 1. In addition, the risk weightings are expected to grow by nearly 200%. The twin impact of these two stipulations will greatly reduce the ROE and the profitability of banks. The proposed shift from short-term to long-term liquidity will increase the cost of funds for the banking system. This will further squeeze the banks profit margins. One of the basic tenets of prudent banking is to borrow long and lend short. There must be a match between the duration of liabilities and the duration of assets, which is at the heart of asset-liability management. Long duration assets were acquired with short duration funding. However, it is a known fact that illiquid banks will soon become insolvent. The leverage ratio of Indian banks is moderate, and hence, not a cause for concern. However, with capital dilution, increased risk weightings and ceilings on derivative trading, the new leverage ratio will impact the lending capability of the banks. As India is a developing economy, the shrinkage of bank credit can set in recessionary trends. Further, the developmental agenda of the Indian banks will take a backseat in such a situation. While systemic stability is welcome, it cannot be at the cost of the larger economic goals of poverty alleviation, employment generation, priority sector lending and balanced regional growth. Therefore, it is opined that the new regime of prudential regulations will result in greater stability of the banking industry in various countries. Exercising controls on the capital, liquidity and leveraging of banks will ensure that they have the ability to withstand crises.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ethical Problems of Gambling An addiction to gambling can be as alcoholism and drug addiction. Gambling is a chronic though gradual condition that occurs when an individual is unable to control the impulse to participate in gambling,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¬regardless of the impact that it may have on oneÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¬s life. The disorder frequently leads to stress,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¬extensive debt,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¬a gradually worsened gambling problem especially if the procedure is left untreated. Although gambling has a clear financial effect,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¬it is fundamentally an emotional issue. The precise cause of gambling addiction is unknown,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¬but both the environment and genetics has a major contribution factor. Gambling traits are often similar to the symptoms of substance abuse.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They are more involved with events and activities,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¬and have now become role models to kids and adults. Especially the ones that are seeking professional help for the same addiction. That is where respect and trustÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¬begins with everyone. I can relate to this topic.Ã¢â¬ I have never really gambled,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¬but my entire family were onceShow MoreRelatedThe Ethical Problems Of Gambling2688 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesAbstract Gambling has become a serious headache for individuals who are unable to control their desire for the game. Careless gambling has destroyed jobs, relationships and souls. The purpose of this paper is to present the problem factors by discussing the ethical problems of gambling and the difference concepts between Deontology, Virtue Ethics Theories and Relativism Perspective. When you consider the unfortunate ones, this argument is particularly influential. The latest gambling conversationRead MoreEthical Problem with Gambling Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEthical Problems of Gambling SOC 120 Michael Pankrast November 13, 2012 The main focus points of this paper are gambling addiction and crimes perspire through gambling activities. 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However, how would ethical theories and perspectives differ in their approach to the effects of gambling? When people think of gambling, they usually see flashingRead MoreThe Issue Of The Lottery943 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslottery is one of only a few that operates a compulsive gambling treatment operation as part of its regular operations, employing six problem gambling experts. Five state s require a telephone number for help for problem gamblers be printed on its lottery tickets (National Gambling Impact, 1999). 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The purpose of this paper is to present information from the perspectives of those both in favor of and opposed to the legalization of gambling and casino development in their communities. The paper concludes with the application of ethical theories to help determine the morality of casino development. Positions RegardingRead MoreMovie Review - 211455 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesplaying the game, while the hero is Ben Campbell, a mathematical genius student of Havard Medical School who really needs money to pay his school fees and very good in counting cards which enable him to win every time he plays Black Jack games. The ethical dilemma of Professor Micky Rosa is whether to stop ordering his students to play black jack game, or to pursuit using them as his team to win the game. If he plays the game by without the team, he can win the game but the gain is not as much as if
Imagine having a career that truly has a positive impact on others even from the beginning of your duties. A specialized nurse called a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist or C.R. We will write a custom essay sample on Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (C.R.N.A.) or any similar topic only for you Order Now N.A. knows this feeling well. This type of nurse is able to administer anesthesia to patients having surgical, dental or medical procedures to prevent the patient from having any pain during the procedure. To become a nurse anesthetist a registered nurse must complete more extensive training and testing. Patients typically are happy to see anesthetist knowing they will keep them from experiencing any pain www.uta.edu/nursing/BaylorAweb/anesth.htm). The nurse anesthetist has many responsibilities while on duty. One of the most important aspects of the anesthetist is balancing the depth of sedation. If a patient receives too much anesthesia medicine they can have trouble breathing and may need to be put on a ventilator. If the patient does not receive enough medicine they may end up feeling the pain of their surgery. Another important role of the nurse anesthetist is to teach the patient and their family things they need to know regarding their condition. During a procedure the nurse anesthetist must closely watch the patient for any signs or symptoms of impending danger and respond quickly to keep the patient stable. The nurse must always monitor and record the condition of the patient as well as the vital signs before, during and after the surgery. At the end of the surgery the anesthetist needs to monitor the patient until the effects of the anesthesia wear off. Sometimes the anesthetist will give the patient a medication that will reverse the effects of the anesthesia (www.uta.edu). Nurse Anesthetist 2 The nurse anesthetist can have a great impact on how the patient feels about the care they receive. The obvious impact that a nurse anesthetist has on a patient is freedom from the fear of pain. This is a great relief for the patient which will in turn encourage the patient to cooperate in their care. Having a nurse anesthetist is cost effective when compared to an anesthesiologist which is a medical doctor who also has had training in anesthesia. To apply the concept of NeumanÃ¢â¬â¢s System Model a nurse anesthetist needs to be able to communicate clearly with the patient. If the patient understands details of his or her treatment they are more likely to cooperate. This model explains that mental health is not stuck in one spot but is on a pole which can move toward or away from wellness. To keep stress as low as possible, three levels of prevention are used. Primary prevention is used before symptoms happen. Secondary prevention is when symptoms are present. This helps build a defense by bringing the surface resources that usually were not required. Tertiary prevention looks at the return of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s wellness. This is done by building on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths. All three levels are meant to cause reduced stress and increase wellness (www.geocities.com). Nurses happened to be the first group of professionals to administer anesthesia in the United States. The AANA is an association that represents nurse anesthetists across the world. The association was formed in 1931 and currently represents about 28,000 CRNAÃ¢â¬â¢s (www.aana.com). Nurse Anesthetist 3 Many nurses are attracted to this profession for many reasons. One large difference from a registered nurse and a nurse anesthetist is the pay. On average a nurse anesthetist can usually earn double the income of the registered nurse. More money is needed however for education because there is at least two more years of schooling to take to become a nurse anesthetist but the payoff will be well worth it. Many nurses are intrigued by the never ending learning. Anesthesia is still somewhat a mystery to scientists and there are new discoveries being made every day. Many people in the medical profession enjoy lifelong learning and this happens to be one of the professions that can provide never ending questions. Many nurses still get great satisfaction from having a good relationship with their patients. It can feel very rewarding to ease a patients worries regarding surgery. A confident nurse anesthetist can reassure a worried patient that she will be watched and taken care of closely. The amount of responsibility also is one of the reasons that being a nurse anesthetist is such a fulfilling career. There are many other people in the room during surgery but the anesthetist has the responsibility to monitor the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness and to adjust as needed. The patient may be on a ventilator temporarily so the airway needs close attention. Due to the fact that anesthesia can have an effect on vital signs the nurse anesthetist much watch for changes closely. All in all the responsibilities of this career are many and demanding but having the chance to make such a direct impact on someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is a privilege. The gratitude you may receive will become the icing on the cake. Nurse Anesthetist Running Head: Nurse Anesthetist The Role and Responsibilities of the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist I. Introduction a. define CRNA b. training requirements II. Role and Responsibilities III. Impact of the Profession IV. NeumanÃ¢â¬â¢s System Model V. Desirability of the Profession Work Cited 1. (www.aana.com), Qualifications and Capabilities of the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist, retrieved 05/20/2007. 2. (www.geocities.com), NeumanÃ¢â¬â¢s System Model, retrieved 05/20/2007. 3. (www.uta.edu/nursing/BaylorAweb/anesth.htm), Nurse Anesthetist, retrieved 05/20/2007. How to cite Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (C.R.N.A.), Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Titanium Essay, Research Paper The Reverend William Gregor in 1791, who was interested in minerals, discovered Ti. He recognized the presence of a new component, now known as Ti, in menachanite, a mineral named after Menaccan in Cornwall ( England ) . Several old ages subsequently, the component was rediscovered in the ore rutile by a German chemist, Klaproth. The pure elemental metal was non made until 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter, who heated TiCl4 together with Na in a steel bomb at 700-800? C. Titanium is used for metals with aluminium, Mo, manganese, Fe, and other metals. These metals of Ti are used chiefly in the aerospace industry, for both airframes and engines, where lightweight strength and ability to defy extremes of temperature are of import. Titanium is every bit strong as steel, but much lighter. It is twice every bit strong as aluminium. It is about every bit immune to corrosion as Pt. Titanium is a constituent of joint replacing parts, including hip ball and sockets. We will write a custom essay sample on Titanium Essay Research Paper The Reverend William or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It has first-class opposition to saltwater and is used for propellor shafts, set uping, and other parts of ships exposed to salt H2O. A Ti anode coated with Pt provides cathodic protection from corrosion by salt H2O. Titanium pigment is an first-class reflector of infrared radiation, and is extensively used in solar observatories where heat causes hapless sing conditions. Pure Ti dioxide is comparatively clear and has an highly high index of refraction with an optical scattering higher than diamond. It is produced unnaturally for usage as a gemstone, but it is comparatively soft. Star sapphires and rubies exhibit their asterism as a consequence of the presence of TiO2. The dioxide is used extensively for pigment as it is lasting and has good covering power. Titanium oxide pigment histories for the largest usage of the component. Titanium, symbol Ti, silvery-white metallic component with an atomic figure of 22 and an atomic weight of 47.9. Titanium is one of the passage elements of the periodic tabular array. Pure Ti metal is highly brickle when cold but ductile and ductile at a low ruddy heat. Titanium is neer found in the pure province. Because of its strength and light weight, Ti is used in alloys and as a replacement for aluminium. Alloyed with aluminium and V, Ti is used in aircraft for fire walls, outer tegument, landing-gear constituents, hydraulic tube, and engine supports. Titanium is besides widely used in missiles and infinite capsules. The Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo capsules were mostly made of Ti. The chemical inertness of Ti makes it suited as a replacing for bone and gristle in surgery and as a pipe and armored combat vehicle liner in nutrient processing. It is used in desalination workss because of its ability to defy saltwater corrosion. Titanium dioxide, known as Ti white, is a superb white pigment used in pigments, lacquers, plastics, paper, fabrics, and gum elastic. Pure Ti is soluble in concentrated acids, such as sulphuric and hydrofluoric acids, and indissoluble in H2O. The metal is highly brickle when cold, but is readily ductile and ductile at a low ruddy heat. Titanium thaws at about 1660? C ( about 3020? F ) , boils at about 3287? C ( about 5949? F ) , and has a specific gravitation of 4.5. The atomic weight of Ti is 47.88.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Sugar and Its Role in Overweight/Obesity Development or Treatment High Fructose Corn Syrup Researchers present different visions in relation to the dependence of the issue of obesity on the consumption of high fructose corn syrup. Stanhope discusses the relationship of the metabolic syndrome and consumption of fructose. It is found that increases in the consumption of high fructose corn syrup can provoke the dyslipidemia and decrease insulin sensitivity (Stanhope, 2012).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Sugar and Its Role in Overweight/Obesity Development or Treatment specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, high fructose corn syrup is absorbed by the organism differently in comparison with the other types of sugar. That is why, the function of the metabolic regulating hormones can be influenced significantly. As a result, the appetite-control centers are affected, and the personÃ¢â¬â¢s appetite can increase, provoking the further consumption of calories and causing obesity with references to the body mass index and blood pressure (Lin et al., 2012). However, there is the lack of research in the field to state this or that point of view clearly. The discussion of the most controversial points can be supported with references to the investigation conducted by Lowndes and the group of researchers. Thus, according to the research findings, hypocaloric diets containing high fructose corn syrup can contribute to the decreases in weight of the obese individuals (Lowndes et al., 2012). From this point, high fructose corn syrup cannot be discussed as the direct cause for the epidemics of obesity in the United States as it is proclaimed by different scientists. However, all the effects of high fructose corn syrup on the human body and the development of obesity are not studied completely, and it is important to pay attention to such products containing high fructose corn syrup as soda, juice drinks, candies, and yogurts. Sorbitol To avoid obesity and control the we ight, sorbitol is used in sugar-free products. Thus, sorbitol is the component of such sugar-free products as syrups, cakes, pancakes, cookies, candies, and chocolate.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These sugar-free products can help people control their daily rates of calorie consumption because of the particular features of the sorbitol absorption by the human organism. Sorbitol is not absorbed properly, and it does not raise the blood pressure. However, the problem is in the fact that while being used in the reduced-calorie diets, sorbitol can cause such gastroenterology problems as meteorism and diarrhea (Stavniichuk et al., 2012). Nevertheless, the researchers are inclined to agree that the reduced-calorie diets based on the usage of sorbitol can be effective in overcoming the problems with obesity (Fernandez-Banares, Esteve, and Viver, 2009). Though, the proble m is also in the associated gastrointestinal symptoms. The connection of sorbitol malabsorption with gastrointestinal symptoms is obvious and the sorbitol-reduced diet can help in resolving the problem (Fernandez-Banares, Esteve, and Viver, 2009). Nevertheless, it is also important to explore the connection between the usage of sorbitol, calorie rates, gastrointestinal symptoms, and overweight in order to state clearly that sorbitol can be effective in diets to prevent obesity because of its malabsorption. Causing gastrointestinal symptoms, sorbitol can also affect the development of the other problems associated with gastroenterology which can influence the process of the absorption of different productsÃ¢â¬â¢ components (Ledochowski et al., 20000. Thus, the problem is in the lack of the research on causes of the obesity epidemics, and sorbitol cannot be discussed as the sweetener which helps overcome the problem of obesity without harming the human health. References Fernandez-B anares, F., Esteve, M., and Viver, J. (2009). Fructose-sorbitol malabsorption. Current Gastroenterology Reports, 11(5), 368-374. Ledochowski, M., Widner, B., Bair, H., Probst, T., and Fuchs, D. (2000). Fructose- and sorbitol-reduced diet improves mood and gastrointestinal disturbances in fructose malabsorbers. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 35(10), 1048-1052.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Sugar and Its Role in Overweight/Obesity Development or Treatment specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lin, W., Huang, M., Chan, T., Ciou, S., and Lee, C. (2012). Effects on uric acid, body mass index and blood pressure in adolescents of consuming beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup. International Journal of Obesity, 14(8), 19-28. Lowndes, J., Kawiecki, D., Pardo, S., Nguyen, V., Melanson, K., and Rippe, J. (2012). The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose c orn syrup on weight loss and related parameters. Nutrition Journal, 11(55), 2-10. Stanhope, K. (2012). Role of fructose-containing sugars in the epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Annual Review of Medicine, 63(8), 329-343. Stavniichuk, R., Shevalve, H., Hirooka, H., Nadler, J., and Obrosova, I. (2012). Interplay of sorbitol pathway of glucose metabolism, 12/15-lipoxygenase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases in the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biochemical Pharmacology, 83(7), 932-940.
Monday, March 2, 2020
'Charlotte's Web' Quotes Charlottes Web is a popular childrens book by E.B. White, anÃ acclaimed American writer. The book is about a pig named Wilbur and his adventures and life on a farm. An uncommonlyÃ talented spider named Charlotte saves Wilbur from being butchered by writing words in her web. The story deals with themes of the nature of friendshipÃ and loss. HereÃ are a few quotes from the book. Quotes From Charlottes Web Wilbur didnt know what to do or which way to run. It seemed as though everybody was after him. If this is what its like to be free, he thought, I believe Id rather be penned up in my own yard.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 3Wilbur didnt want food, he wanted love.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 3I am a glutton but not a merrymaker.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 4[W]hen your stomach is empty and your mind is full, its always hard to sleep.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 5Its true, and I have to say whats true.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 5Well, he thought, Ive got a new friend, all right. But what a gamble friendship is! Charlotte is fierce, brutal, scheming, bloodthirsty - everything I dont like. How can I learn to like her, even though she is pretty and, of course, clever?- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 5A rat is a rat.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 6Theres a regular conspiracy around here to kill you at Christmastime.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 7 If I can fool a bug... I can surely fool a man. People are not as smart as bugs.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 10It seems to me youre a little off. It seems to me we have no ordinary spider.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 11But nobody pointed out that the web itself is a miracle.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 14I dont understand it, and I dont like what I dont understand.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 14It is quite possible that an animal has spoken to me and that I didnt catch the remark because I wasnt paying attention.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 14No one was with her when she died.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 21She was in a class by herself. It is not often that someone comes along who is a true friend and a good writer. Charlotte was both.- E.B. White, Charlottes Web, Ch. 22